Development of the Violoncello and Leading German Cello Schools of Pedagogy of the 19th Century

This article analyzes cello performing art of the 19th century. This instrument’s characteristics and playing technique are shown in detail – in context of the said epoque. German violoncello schools are studied and their impact on European cellists is surveyed, as well as some contradictions of various 19th c. German cello teaching schools – in contrast to the real possibilities of the emerging new cello. Survey and discussion is done on 19th c. left – and right-hand cello performance techniques. There are also examples given of contradictions between the cello’s difficulty level and real possibilities. Violoncello performance achievements throughout the 19th century have demonstrated the need of a new achievement dating system, discussed here.