In the last few decades, cognitive science and music psychology begin to investigate the neurobiological processes related to music awareness. As a result, modern musical theory associates with new music perception and memory interpretations – using latest technologies and tools. Music theory affects music dictation types, under the influence of new knowledge and technology. Therefore, structural-analytical approach to music theory includes: 1. analytical interpretation of various aspects of monophonic and polyphonic tone structure (mode, intervals, chords, rhythm, meter, etc.), 2. dictation, consisting of syntactic elements, like thematicism, elements of harmony and polyphony, 20th century structures, modes and chords.